佛罗伦萨国立考古博物馆（Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Firenze），这座400岁的博物馆很少在各式各样的攻略中提到，我以前也从没进去过。博物馆中的很多藏品系来自梅第奇家族和洛林家族的收藏，尤其以其收藏的古埃及时代的藏品而闻名。正遇上每月第一个周日的国立博物馆免费日，不去博物馆好像会亏。所以挑了这个不太热门的博物馆去逛逛。走到门口，果然没人，直接领了免费票就进去了。先看看博物馆的小花园（Insert pics1-2）伊特鲁里亚时期展品（Etruscan collection）要了解托斯卡纳的历史，就不能不了解伊特鲁里亚人的历史。公元前10世纪开始，伊特鲁里亚人在台伯河和阿诺河之间找到了自己栖息地，他们吸取东西方元素，逐渐形成自己独特的文化。公元前6世纪，伊特鲁里亚的文明程度达到了巅峰，可以熟练打造青铜和铁器。托斯卡纳的很大一部分地区都在他们的统治之下，比如我们曾经介绍过的沃尔泰拉，还保留着当时建造的城门。以及Pitigliano小镇，还有伊特鲁里亚人留下的生活痕迹。伊特鲁里亚人的灌溉农业相当发达，畜牧业也颇兴旺。由于手工业和商业的发展，对外贸易日益兴盛，同希腊、迦太基和意大利南部等地都有往来。公元前7世纪，伊特鲁里亚出现城市国家。军事长官、祭司长等贵族奴隶主构成特权阶层，经常从事征战和海盗活动，劫掠财富和奴隶。贫困的氏族成员和被征服的土著居民沦为依附民，在农业和手工业生产中占主导地位。——百度百科伊特鲁里亚约于公元前509年被罗马人推翻。公元前1世纪，伊特鲁里亚并入罗马，并迅速被罗马人同化。他们的来历之神秘，至今未有定论。也之所以令人着迷。在佛罗伦萨考古博物馆中收藏着大量的伊特鲁里亚时期的青铜器、铁器，看着这些近乎三千年前（中国东周的春秋时期）的展品，其制作之精美，大量使用青铜和铁，就可以想象当时的繁盛。其中最著名的展品要数公元前4世纪的喀迈拉青铜雕塑（Chimera di Arezzo）。
名字不熟悉？看图你就知道这件接近1米长的青铜雕塑是1553年在阿雷佐（Arezzo）发现的，当时因为要修建美蒂奇家族城堡而被挖掘出来。后来被爱好艺术收藏的美蒂奇家族收藏在自家“办公室”——旧宫，后来又搬到自家豪宅——碧提宫；1718年进入乌菲兹美术馆；后来又来到考古博物馆“安家”。在两千多前，如果你胖墩墩，活到头发掉了、皮肤皱了，就是富庶的象征。因此棺材上的雕塑也是又胖、又老、头发少的形象。古埃及时期（Ancient Egyptian Collection）佛罗伦萨国立博物馆中收藏的古埃及藏品数量仅次于都灵的古埃及博物馆（而都灵的古埃及博物馆的馆藏量仅次于开罗博物馆）。古希腊时期（Ancient Greek Collection）以古希腊时期的陶器为主要展品，这些从伊特鲁里亚人墓穴里出土的古希腊时期生活用品，代表着当时贸易交流的兴盛。都是从希腊“海淘”来的博物馆一共三层，参观时间需2-2.5小时。
The Chimera di Arezzo at the Museo Archeologico Nazionale in Florence
Do not miss it!
The Four-hundred-year-old museum of archeology is rarely mentioned in Florence guides. The exhibits are mostly from the family collections of Medici and Lorraine, especially the ancient Egyptian collection. It happened to be the free museum day (the first Sunday of each month), why not going to check it out? There was literally nobody at the entrance, I took a free entry ticket at the ticket office and walked inside. The small garden is attached to the museum. To understand the history of Tuscany, you must not ignore the history of Etruscans.From the 10th century BC, the Etruscan inhabited at the area between Tiber River and Arno River, gradually forming their own unique culture. At the 6th century BC, Etruscan civilization reached its peak, they could handle bronze and iron very well. A large part of Tuscany was under their rule, such as Volterra, the town still keeps the gates that were built at that time. As well as the town of Pitigliano, with traces of life left by the Etruscans. Etruscans’ agriculture was well developed and animal husbandry was also flourishing. Due to the development of handicrafts and commerce, foreign trade had become increasingly prosperous, with contacts with Greece, Carthage and southern Italy. By 7th century BC, the Etruscan cities ruling class was constituted by military, priests and slave owners, with business “diversified” also in war campaign and piracy activities, looting wealth and slaves. Poor clan members and conquered indigenous peoples were reduced to dependency and would be used in agricultural and handicraft production. Etruscans were overthrown by the Romans in 509 BC. In the first century BC, Etruscans merged into Rome, and quickly assimilated by the Romans. The mystery of their origins has not been conclusive. The archaeological museum of Florence houses a large number of Etruscan bronze, iron artifacts. Looking at these nearly three-thousand year-old exhibits, the fine line, extensive use of bronze and iron, you can imagine the prosperity at that time.The most well known piece would be Chimera di Arezzo from the 4th century BC and with a lion head, a goat body and a snake tail, Chimera is an evil creature in Greek mythology. This almost 1 meter long bronze sculpture was discovered in Arezzo in 1553, due to the construction of a Medici castle. The Medici family first kept it in their own office – Palazzo Vecchio. Then it was moved into their residence, at Palazzo Pitti. Then it went to Galleria Uffizi in 1718, and finally found its home in the Archaeological Museum of Florence. Also the jewelry made by Etruscans were very fine. Here the ancient Greek exhibits are mostly earthenware from Etruscan tombs, which indicates the frequent trade between the two areas.There are 3 floors in the museum. People spend 2 – 2.5 hours averagely to visit it.